International Labour Organisation
- ILO Convention no 29, 1930, concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour
- The aim of this convention is the suppression of the use of forced labour in all its forms. It states that the illegal exaction of forced or compulsory labor shall be a punishable offense. “Forced or compulsory labor” is defined as all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of penalty and of which the said person has not offered himself or herself voluntarily.This convention was later reinforced in 1957 by the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No. 105). State parties to these conventions undertake to counter forced labour which is defined as “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily.”
- ILO Convention No. 138, 1973, concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
- The minimum age of employment is 15, or with caveats, 14. The convention sets the minimum age for any type of work which is likely to jeopardise health, safety or morals of young people at 18.
United Nations Conventions
- 1959 United Nations Declarations on the Rights of the Child
- Calls for protection of children against exploitation and neglect. While This was not a binding treaty it set the ground for later conventions.
- 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child
- This binding convention outlines children’s human rights in civil, political, economic, social, and cultural spheres. The relevant sections in relation to ‘commercial sexual exploitation’ are:
- Article 34:
- State parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For the purposes state parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multicultural measures to prevent;
the inducement of coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;the exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;the exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials;
- Article 35:
- State Parties shall take all appropriate national bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.
- 1992 UN programme of Action on the prevention of the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
- The Programme called for a multidisciplinary plan of action which included:
Information and education;
Social measures and development assistance;
- 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women
- Violence is understood to cover physical, sexual and psychological violence. The Declaration counters both traditional and modern practices which exploit women and the female child for sexual or other purposes.
DR WIDODO JUDARWANTO
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